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Tutorial 4

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Disk Management Basics

File Allocation Table

NT File System

Troubleshooting the installation

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This Tutorial is divided into four sections:

DISK MANAGEMENT BASICS

Before you can install Windows 2000 Server on a hard disk, the portion of the disk that Windows 2000 will use must be initialized with a storage type, partitioned, and formatted. If the system and boot partition will be separate, both the disk area to contain the system files and the disk area to contain the operating system must be partitioned and formatted. This lesson provides an overview of how to configure storage media and provides information about specific disk maintenance tasks.

FILE ALLOCATION TABLE

The FAT file system was designed for small disks and simple folder structures. Windows 2000 supports two versions of the FAT file system: FAT16 and FAT32. A partition formatted with FAT16 is divided into 512 byte sectors and files are written to the disk in clusters, also known as allocation units. The default cluster size is determined by the partition size, and it can be as small as 4 KB, or 8 sectors, or as large as 64 KB, or 128 sectors. The main benefit of FAT32 is its ability to support partitions larger than those handled by FAT16. FAT16 supports partitions up to 4 GB in size, while FAT32 can handle partitions as large as 2047 GB in size. Windows 2000 will format a partition with FAT32 only up to 32 GB in size, but it can mount FAT32 partitions that are 2047 GB in size. FAT32 was implemented with as little change as possible to existing FAT16 architecture, internal data structures, application programming interfaces (APIs), and on-disk format.

NT FILE SYSTEM

Windows 2000 comes with a new version of NTFS. This newest version, NTFS version 5.0, provides performance, reliability, and compatibility not found in FAT. The NTFS data structures allow you to take advantage of new features in Windows 2000, such as Active Directory services, management software, and the storage features based on reparse points. NTFS includes security features required for file servers and high-end personal computers in a corporate environment, and it also includes data access control and ownership privileges important for data integrity. FILE SYSTEM SECURITY Sharing folders is the only way to make folders and their contents available over the network. Shared folders provide a way to secure file resources; they can be used on FAT16 and FAT32 partitions, as well as on NTFS partitions. But NTFS supports more than just shared folders. NTFS permissions can be used to specify which users and groups can gain access to files and folders and what they can do with their content. However, NTFS permissions are not available on volumes that are formatted with FAT.

FILE SYSTEM SECURITY

Sharing folders is the only way to make folders and their contents available over the network. Shared folders provide a way to secure file resources; they can be used on FAT16 and FAT32 partitions, as well as on NTFS partitions. But NTFS supports more than just shared folders. NTFS permissions can be used to specify which users and groups can gain access to files and folders and what they can do with their content. However, NTFS permissions are not available on volumes that are formatted with FAT.